The human body contains ~ 3.72 x 1013 cells and 200 different cell types. Generating the right number and types of cells is vital for embryogenesis, morphogenesis and tissue homeostasis. Such cellular diversity can be generated and maintained through asymmetric cell division (ACD), an evolutionary conserved process. ACD can be manifested in sibling cell size differences, distinct biochemical and molecular identities, or differences in subsequent division patterns.
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Cell and Molecular Biology
In every growing cell, the DNA replication and transcription machineries are routinely in conflict with each other. Replication-transcription conflicts have various negative outcomes, including slowing of DNA replication forks, and breaks in the DNA. Survival, despite the existence of conflicts, depends on essential conflict resolution factors that all organisms harbor. In this seminar, I will highlight some of the new insights we have gained regarding the multi-faceted effects of these encounters on key parameters of cellular function.
Last year, we celebrated the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology awarded for the discoveries of the molecular basis of daily rhythms in cells. These circadian (~24 h) rhythms are common across phyla and cell types. In vertebrates, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) synchronizes circadian rhythms in behavior and physiology to the external light cycle, but the mechanisms by which this occurs are unclear.