A primary cilium is presented as a meso-scale device that senses and translates extracellular information into intracellular biochemical reactions. These input cues manifest in a variety of forms ranging from chemical to mechanical ones. Deregulation of these information transfer leads to human diseases known as ciliopathies. Due to its diffraction-limited dimension and semi-membrane-bound topology, a primary cilium has been a daunting compartment to visualize and manipulate signaling events on site.
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The precision of localization-based super-resolution microscopy techniques fundamentally relies on the point-spread function of the optical system and the number of photons one can collect. Here, we report that by using a high-numerical aperture objective lens and a custom cryogenic stage, we are able to increase photon yield by 2-3 fold over room temperature, thereby achieving more precise super-resolution reconstructions of complex subcellular structures.
There have been several national calls to revise undergraduate biology education to focus primarily on core concepts and skills as opposed to topics. Many departments have been moving toward this goal, but have lacked a means to measure their progress. We have developed, validated and field-tested a programmatic-level assessment called BioMAPS (for Biology-Measuring Achievement and Progress in Science) that is aligned with the core concepts outlined by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) report Vision and Change.