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Photoperiodic Flowering: Time Measurement Mechanisms in Leaves.

TitlePhotoperiodic Flowering: Time Measurement Mechanisms in Leaves.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsSong Y H, Shim J S, Kinmonth-Schultz HA, Imaizumi T
JournalAnnual review of plant biology
Date Published2014 Dec 12

Many plants use information about changing day length (photoperiod) to align their flowering time with seasonal changes to increase reproductive success. A mechanism for photoperiodic time measurement is present in leaves, and the day-length-specific induction of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, which encodes florigen, is a major final output of the pathway. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which photoperiodic information is perceived in order to trigger FT expression in Arabidopsis as well as in the primary cereals wheat, barley, and rice. In these plants, the differences in photoperiod are measured by interactions between circadian-clock-regulated components, such as CONSTANS (CO), and light signaling. The interactions happen under certain day-length conditions, as previously predicted by the external coincidence model. In these plants, the coincidence mechanisms are governed by multilayered regulation with numerous conserved as well as unique regulatory components, highlighting the breadth of photoperiodic regulation across plant species. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Plant Biology Volume 66 is April 29, 2015. Please see for revised estimates.

Alternate JournalAnnu Rev Plant Biol