I am interested in why the beautiful and diverse patterns of development have evolved as they have instead of in other ways. Most of my research is on functional requirements and constraints for embryos, larvae, and juveniles of marine animals. Topics include parental protection and retention of embryos, extraembryonic nutrition, feeding and swimming of pelagic larvae, costs and benefits of dispersal, constraints on habitat selection, mortality, defenses, stasis and change in modes of development. My students' research has also included consequences of coloniality, constraints on mating by free spawners, and other topics.
Resident Assoc. Director of the Friday Harbor Labs, UW, from 1973 to 2008. Also since 1973, on the faculty of the Zoology Department and now Biology Department at the UW to 2008.
Previously, a Predoctoral Fellow, NSF, Univ. of Washington 1963-69; Postdoctoral Trainee, NIH, UCLA, 1970 Postdoctoral Fellow, NSF, Univ. of Hawaii, 1970-71 Assistant Prof. in Dept. of Zoology, Univ. of Maryland, 1971-73. NSF grants: Regional patterns in reproduction and survival of the barnacle Balanus glandula (1975-1981), Larvae feeding with cilia (1981-83), Constraints on foraging and form associated with two larval ciliary feeding mechanisms (1984-86), The relation between adult size, brooding, and simultaneous hermaphroditism (with D. Eernisse) (1984-86), Constraints on modes of development of benthic marine invertebrates (1986-1990), Interocean comparisons of food limited larval growth (1987-1988), Limits on size and form of benthic clutches (1990-1993), Plasticity of larval feeding structures (1993-1996), Duration of development of planktonic embryos (1996-2001), Constraints on performance and pelagic periods of larvae (2001-2004), Swimming and vulnerability in pelagic development (2002-2007), Predator-induced morphological defenses in marine zooplankton (2006-2009). Guggenheim Fellow for research on sea urchin form at Smithsonian Inst. and on ciliary feeding at Marine Biol. Assoc. UK, 1980-81