Explores physiological mechanisms that underlie ecological observations, including how above- and below-ground microclimates develop and affect plant physiological processes. Discusses acclimation to environmental change along with species differences in physiological processes and plant's occupation of heterogeneous environments. Laboratories emphasize field measurement techniques. Prerequisite: either BIOL 180, B BIO 180, TESC 120, ESRM 201, ESRM 162, or FISH 162. Offered: jointly with ESRM 478; W.