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My lab studies feeding in mammals and relates the biomechanics of normal function to growth processes of the skull and cranial muscles. We use physiological techniques such as electromyography, sonomicrography, and strain gage recording to understand the contraction patterns of the muscles and how they load the skeletal tissues. These observations are then followed up morphometrically and with histology. We are especially interested in the influence of mechanical loading on cell division and differentiation. Our current major project investigates what happens to the jaw bones after paralysis of single muscles using Botox.
B.S., Zoology, University of Chicago, 1967
Ph.D., Anatomy, University of Chicago, 1971
Postdoctoral Fellow, Oral Anatomy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1971-2
Assistant Professor to Professor of Oral Anatomy and Anatomy, University of Illinois at Chicago, 1972-1990
Professor of Orthodontics and Oral Health Sciences, University of Washington, 1990-present