My research focuses on symbiotic interactions between plants and fungal endophytes. The endophytes reside entirely within plant tissues and adapt plants to environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, heat and heavy metals. Without the appropriate endophyte, plants do not survive exposure to environmental stresses even though they may have evolved in high stress habitats. Current laboratory studies are focused on characterizing the molecular, genetic, and physiological bases of how fungal endophytes adapt plants to abiotic and biotic stresses. Current ecological studies are focused on utilizing symbiotic technologies to: mitigate impacts of climate change on plants, improve soil remediation and habitat restoration efforts, manage invasive plants, and improve agricultural productivity.