Associate Professor
(206) 543-1687 (office)
(206) 221-6724 (lab)
Web site
HCK 406

Research Overview

1. Cenozoic evolution of grasses and grazers

The evolution of grassland ecosystems was one of the most profound ecological changes of the past 65 million years, but many questions remain as to when it occurred and what triggered it. A traditional, yet untested assumption is that many animals (e.g., horses, dung beetles) evolved in lockstep with the spread of grass-dominated vegetation. I investigate these questions by using a novel source of paleobotanical data, plant silica (phytolith), integrated with information from, for example, sedimentology, modern ecology, plant anatomy, and vertebrate paleontology. This work entails paleontological and geologic fieldwork in areas such as the North American continental interior, the Pacific Northwest, Argentina, Turkey, Spain, and China, laboratory work, as well as systematic, statistical, and phylogenetic analysis. Many of these projects involve international collaborators including from Duke University, Geologic Survey of Turkey, Utrecht University, Netherlands, University of Helsinki, Finland, and National Museum of Natural Science, Madrid, Spain.

2. Origin, early diversification, and biogeography of the grass clade

Grasses evolved in the Late Cretaceous, in parallel with the break-up of Gondwana. It is less clear how this species-rich and ecologically important group reached its current global distribution and what the earliest interactions with herbivores were. My research on grass phytoliths preserved in coprolites from the Late Cretaceous of India with colleagues at the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow and the Panjab University, Chandigarh attempts to address these questions.

3. Ecology of Late Cretaceous angiosperms

Angiosperms had reached high taxonomic diversity by the Late Cretaceous, but were still marginal in terms of relative abundance in mid-high latitude vegetation in North America. Together with Scott Wing (National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution) and colleagues, I investigate vegetation structure and the ecological role(s) that angiosperms played in the Late Cretaceous, using an exceptionally preserved fossil flora at the Big Cedar Ridge. central Wyoming.


2007 Postdoctoral Fellow, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC

2004-2006 Postdoctoral Fellow, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden

2003 Ph.D., Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley

1997 B.A., M.Sc., Department of Geology, Lund University, Sweden

Selected Publications

Dunn RE, Strömberg CA, Le T-. Light environment and epidermal cell morphology in grasses. International Journal of Plant Sciences. Submitted.
Dillhoff RM, Dillhoff TA, Jijina AP, Strömberg CA. The Vasa Park flora, King County, Washington, USA – a window into the late Miocene of the Pacific Northwest. In: Paleobotany and Biogrography, A Festschrift for Alan Graham in His 80th Year. St. Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden Press; 2014. p. 64-97.
Strömberg CA. Evolution of grasses and grassland ecosystems. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences. 2011;39:517-44.
Strömberg CA. Decoupled taxonomic radiation and ecological expansion of open-habitat grasses in the Cenozoic of North America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the Unites States of America. 2005;102(34):11980-4.