If ever there was a timeless beauty, the nautilus is it. Boasting elegant spiral shells, recognizably nautil-esque mollusks have zipped through the ocean’s depths for 500 million years. Their iconic shell has sheltered nautiluses through glaciations, big melts and mass extinctions. But in recent decades, this shelter has become a trap.
Shell collectors are loving the chambered nautilus to death, according to an October report from the United States’ National Marine Fisheries Service, or NMFS. Our taste for nautilus-shell jewelry and souvenirs has stripped these cephalopods from their habitat in the Philippines and Indonesia. In some spots, they’ve declined by 80 percent in recent decades.
“Natural selection has a whole new game in town,” said Peter Ward, a nautilus expert at Seattle’s University of Washington. And that game is called: “if you are pretty to a human, you are probably going to die.”
Scientists have sounded alarms about nautilus overharvesting since 2014. All nautilus species grow and reproduce slowly, reaching maturity between 10 and 17 years old, and laying just 10 or 20 eggs a year. We’re trapping and killing them at a rate they can’t withstand.
Nautiluses are easily caught in baited traps. Credit: Wildestanimal / Shutterstock
Recently, Ward has noticed a new threat from above, beyond our demand for their tiger-striped shells.
He and a colleague examined the chemical make-up up of nautilus shells to determine their position on the food chain. Depending on the ratio of certain types of nitrogen its body, researchers can figure out if an animal is a top carnivore like a shark, or an herbivore like a manatee.
Nautiluses scrounge on the ocean’s leftovers — molted lobster shells, fish carcasses, small, burrowing critters — so they should be somewhere in the middle of the food chain. When the chemical analysis of their shells put nautiluses near the top of the pecking order, Ward was surprised.
“It turns out it’s a false reading,” he said. The nitrogen ratio can be thrown off if an animal is starving. “And that’s exactly what’s going on with these guys,” he added. “Every single one of them seems to be starving to death.”
A lot of nautilus food drifts down from the surface in the form of dead creatures. Ward suspects that after fishermen get their turn, there aren’t enough fish and squid left behind to eventually die and sink to nautilus-friendly depths. Poorly regulated fishing in the Philippines and other countries has stripped the ocean of seafood.
Together, these developments paint a picture of an animal and an ecosystem in dire straits. But considering how low the nautilus supply is running, it’s still remarkably easy to buy one. While a single elephant tusk or rhinoceros horn can go for hundreds of thousands of dollars on the black market, a nautilus shell starts at around $30 on Amazon or eBay.
Results from a recent Amazon search for nautilus shells.
Selling these ancient mollusks in the United States could get tougher soon. In its October report, NMFS recommended adding nautiluses to the U.S. Endangered Species Act. This would complement a 2016 listing under the Convention for International Trade in Endangered Species.
If NMFS decides that nautiluses fit the U.S. definition of endangered, it would effectively end the 100,000-shell-a-year commercial trade in nautilus curios and jewelry in the United States, said Tanya Sanerib, a senior lawyer at the Center for Biological Diversity in San Francisco. Though the U.S. is not the only nautilus importer, it’s one of the biggest. Cutting out American demand for their shells would be a big boon to these species.
Read the full article in Oceana.